AWA has taken the initiative to review the audiovisual legal framework related to gender equality and the fight against sexism. Below you can read the studies conducted by AWA and the best European and world practices.

AWA Studies

An analysis of the national legislation and the international experience on sexism and gender representation in the audiovisual sector

According to the definition of the European Audiovisual Observatory, the audiovisual sector refers to all media, except the press. This means that cinema, television, radio, videos, and various on-demand services (sic are video on demand, or Catch Up TV) are all sectors of the audiovisual industry.

Based on this definition, the audiovisual sector in Albania is regulated by the law “On Audiovisual Media in the Republic of Albania” no. 97/2013, amended in 2019, the Broadcasting Code for Audiovisual Media in Albania, as well as law no. 8096 “On Cinematography”.  The laws and the Code guarantee compliance with the rules and norms established to regulate the audiovisual sector.

Some of the most concerning phenomena of the audiovisual sector in Albania are sexism, gender-based violence language, the lack of a balanced representation of social reality, and the portrayal of women in inferior, degrading, and stereotypical positions.

Through this study, we want to shed light on two important aspects of women in audiovisual: sexism and gender equality in decision-making. We hope to emphasize the importance of the fight against sexism, expose the real situation of gender equality in audiovisual, highlight the need for urgent addressing of the issue of gender equality as well as identify opportunities for legislative intervention in the laws covering this sector and other related laws.

This study offers concrete legal proposals to reflect the social reality through the lens of anti-sexism, and to guarantee the implementation of the law “On Gender Equality” in the audiovisual sector in Albania.

Issues of gender equality in the audiovisual sector in Albania - co-author

The report calls for affirmative action to change this situation. The focus of the report is on public structures that operate in the audiovisual field, while being aware that the private media has its own share and will reflect, sooner or later, on the principles of gender equality.

The report “Gender representation in the public audiovisual sector in Albania” starts with the reporting of the situation of gender equality in the audiovisual sector in European Union countries, considering that Albania is in the integration process of joining this union of countries and values.

Sexism in the audiovisual media

“Sexism” is defined as any act, action, gesture, visual representation, written or spoken word in audiovisual media, practice, or behavior based on the idea that a person or group of people is inferior due to their gender, occurring in the public or private sphere, online or offline, with the effect and purpose of violating human dignity, fundamental rights, and freedoms of an individual or group of individuals, whether they are Albanian citizens, foreigners, or

stateless individuals, resulting in physical, sexual, psychological, or socio-economic harm or suffering to a person or group of individuals, whether they are Albanian citizens, foreigners, or stateless individuals, or creating or fostering an environment that instills fear, hostility, degradation, harassment, or oppression, or promotes or seeks to maintain and reinforce gender stereotypes.

Good practices

EWA network study on gender inequality in the film industry

Where are the women directors in European films?


This report is the culmination of a two-year process and brings together comparative research from seven European countries: Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the United Kingdom. It is a response by the European Women’s Audiovisual Network (EWA) to growing concern worldwide about the marginalisation of female directors in our film culture and aims to provide the evidence to inform policy change at national and European level. (from the original website)

The 50:50 Equality Project, BBC

50:50 The Equality Project is committed to inspiring and supporting the BBC and organisations around the globe to consistently create journalism and media content that fairly represents our world.

The initiative, born in the BBC’s London newsroom, uses a methodology that is rooted in data, creativity, practicality and passion to fundamentally shift representation within the media (from the original website)

EBU Guidelines for Gender Equality

This report explores the strategies that underpin a gender-equal media organization: workplace data and staff feedback to diagnose the issues; effective workplace policy to support equality of opportunity; and enabling a positive workplace culture through flexibility, leadership and behaviours to retain talent.


UNESCO Gender Equality Indicator

In collaboration with the International Federation of Journalists and many other partners, UNESCO has built the global framework of Gender-Sensitive Indicators for Media (GSIM). This is part of a series of indicators being developed across the organization’s sectors to enable an effective assessment or diagnosis of areas within UNESCO’s media development mandate.